The secret behind makes Graphene the strongest material in the world
Graphene the strongest material in the world !! and It is about 200 times stronger than steel by weight So A sheet of graphene as thin as Cling film could hold the weight of an elephant. In fact, according to one calculation, an elephant would need to balance precariously on the end of a pencil to break through that same sheet. The secret lay in graphene atomic building it an abundant mineral which is an allotrope of carbon that is made up of very tightly bonded carbon atoms organised into a hexagonal lattice very thin atomic thickness (of 0.345Nm).
The secret behind makes Graphene the strongest material in the world:
Most materials are hundreds of times strong without defects in atomic arrangements make it disrupted, Defects can dramatically weaken a material. Graphene looks like diamond structure the most strong natural material but Graphene more organize structure and it thinner one of the thinnest material human know and it not a natural material like diamond its an artificial material, when stressed, the material breaks at the defect – can imagine it as a chain breaks at its weakest link ( this weakest link come from defects in atomic arrangements ).
But Graphene has perfect atomic arrangements because it made by CVD ( Chemical Vapor Deposition ) it fewer defects and make it atom-scale as net of hexagonal and hexagonal one of strong shapes in nature so find bees build own home in this shape in honeycomb and shape strong in nanoscale material, Graphene gets ultimately the strength of a material comes down to the strength with which two neighbouring atoms are stuck together. The electrical attraction between carbon atoms is very strong and that is the source of strength for both graphene and diamond.
Graphene is the strongest material ever tested, with an intrinsic Tensile strength of 130 GPa and a Young’s modulus (stiffness) of 1 TPa (150000000 psi) so it expect to see it’s poised to cast a wide shadow over the future of business, graphene used as a layer in bulletproof vests, armor, aircraft skin, etc . and certainly not replacing copper flashing on roofs, cladding on cookware, etc.
Graphene a new material just one atom thick produced by nanotechnology it very strong, flexible nearly transparent and inventors of it get Noble Prize from appreciation this achievement, Graphene appearance make a revolution in materials human that known it!
Graphene is hailed as a miracle material with the potential to revolutionize products and processes across industries from consumer electronics to biomedicine.
Strongest material in the world:
In the past diamond is the most strongest material human know so when scientists put measure to test material hardness it get number from 10 degrees of diamond strength and it called ” Mohs scale of mineral hardness ” for example steel have 4 degrees and diamond have 10 the top degree in Mohs scale so human use diamond cut the strong things like rocks using saw with diamond blade because if use steel only will erosion this blades so fast and became useless, but in 2003 new material appear stronger than diamond (more 45 time stronger than diamond) and have other super features change a lot of human knowledge and because the ideal material for the future it’s Graphene !
The secret behind Graphene strength:
When looking in diamond by electron microscope find it consist of carbon atoms arranged together graphene also consist of carbon atoms only and in atomic scale looks like Diamond but it structure more organized so graphene more strong than diamond and every graphene molecule creates from six atoms arranged in look like honeycomb structure this structure make it more strong and stability .
Story of invention Graphene :
Graphene new material and first measurably produced and isolated in the lab in 2003 , although a lot of scientists have theorized about graphene for decades before that .
Graphene invented by two Russian scientists Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov working in University of Manchester and won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 “for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene” , this appreciated them efforts came after many years from invent Graphene because in the first a lot of people don’t know value of Graphene and reason of that very high of cost of product Graphene in first days of invented Graphene cost of product very small piece size as human hair cost about 1000$ but after that cost of product graphene became less and less open door to make more experiments to know more about Graphene features and enter Graphene in new uses and applications.
Graphene uses :
1- Safety & Bulletproof :
Graphene the strongest material human was known so making it an ideal ingredient to armor for army and police forces, Professor Jae-Hwang Lee at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst devised a new miniature ballistics test to test graphene’s mettle. They used a laser pulse to superheat gold filaments until they vaporised, acting like gunpowder to fire a micrometre-size glass bullet into 10 to 100 sheets of graphene at 3 kilometers per second – about three times the speed of a bullet fired from an M16 rifle.
2- Planes :
Aero industry usually searching for strong and light materials and Graphene have this feature so a lot of future planes design depended in Graphene to give plane body more strong and graphene more good feature it transparent so some Graphene planes designed to make very wide windows and transparent wall and roof to give chance for passengers to see panoramic view of sky and get special feeling can’t test it before !
Graphene will make planes more light and less weight so make it use less fuel in sure that good from all environment ( planes make about 13% of world pollution ) and make the ticket cheaper to clients.
3- Space :
In space any crack in spaceship or space capsule can cause disaster because it makes to losing air, Oxygen and ensure that meaning deadly accident, so graphene one of best materials to space because of it strong and light weight give more advantage because it makes tool more light and strong to face very rough conditions in space.
4- Mechanical parts :
Any machine built from parts and every part have life expectancy depend on it strength and corrosion face it and when to grow it strength make life expectancy grow up also so when to use graphene to make mechanic parts have more long life and can do more tasks, Graphene also fighting corrosion by graphene painting that paint stay than any other paints and excellent to face corrosion because of this strength .
5- Building materials :
A lot of research try to make it in many materials to give it more strong or cover it by graphene to save it from scratch or broken Graphene also fighting corrosion by ( Graphene Painting ) that paint stay than any other paints and excellent to face corrosion because of this strength.
6- Medical :
Graphene used to make biosensors because of its attractive electrical conductivity properties and its large surface to volume ratio and Graphene biosensor is better than ELISA . Graphene-based material have less permeable than other materials it very useful to infection control because all doctors suffering from permeability of medical gloves and the same problem face who use condoms because of materials ” often latex and vinyl ” permeable to water and blood ” It can’t notice it by naked eye because it very small parts but can cause a lot of diseases ” so it can infection dangerous diseases like HIV , Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has even donated $100,000 to the University of Manchester to help fund development of graphene-based material use in condoms and gloves have less permeable than other materials , and the first prize in the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation condom design competition went to the Manchester-based inventors of graphene may be looked upon in the future as the beginning of it all.
7- Electronics :
Researchers and scientists find graphene the best material to replace Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) because it increasingly becomes expensive due to depletion of rare metal indium, ITO is often used to make transparent conductive coatings for displays such as liquid crystal displays, flat panel displays, plasma displays, touchscreen . and graphene have more advantages like flexibility ” ITO extremely lacks the flexibility and broken easily ” so graphene build flexible screen and many types of screen like OLED ,AMOLED, and it more bright colors and have less consumption power .
Graphene also used product future electronics parts like CPU , RAM , flash memory … etc because graphene have good feature make it competition the conventional semiconductor like silicon , and graphene the world’s thinnest material – we know graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb-shaped lattice in atomic scale so make it the ideal material in nanotechnology .
8- Nanotechnology :
Carbon NanoTubes (CNTs) have many used like Electronics parts , Biomedical , Electrical circuits , Electrical cables and wires , Actuators , Paper batteries , Solar cells and Hydrogen storage , and it usually made from graphene sheet that “roll up” make the nanotube. Graphene will replace copper in nano sutures because electrical resistance in 40-nanometer-wide nanoribbons of epitaxial graphene changes in discrete steps. The ribbons’ conductance exceeds predictions by a factor of 10. The ribbons can act more like optical waveguides or quantum dots, allowing electrons to flow smoothly along the ribbon edges. In copper, resistance increases in proportion to length as electrons encounter impurities.
9- Chemical :
Graphene has the high surface area that can be exploited especially in drugs or another chemical interactive delivery applications. Also, graphene can be surface modified with relative ease and made to bind into specific drug and can be used as drug delivery vehicles, Nano-materials graphene-based used as catalyst alternative to platinum in cell fuel because it very expensive and have another problem platinum is very rarely material in the earth so make big scale fuel cell manufacturing impossible and make it more cheap and affordable .
10- Power and electricity :
A lot of efforts in to develop electronics devices batteries like mobiles , tablets , laptop ..etc to stay more , graphene material entered in new designs to make graphene battery that give more power and charging in less time , graphene enter also in solar panel design, raising its efficiency to an absolutely staggering 60% .